hannibal punic wars

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Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome's terms, and Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia. [31] Recent numismatic evidence suggests that Hannibal's army may have passed within sight of the Matterhorn. [29] Additionally, he would have to contend with opposition from the Gauls, whose territory he passed through. Count Alfred von Schlieffen developed his eponymously titled "Schlieffen Plan" (1905/1906) from his military studies, with a particularly heavy emphasis on the envelopment technique which Hannibal employed to surround and destroy the Roman army in the Battle of Cannae. (3:78). Hannibal Barca Bustby Carole Raddato (CC BY-SA). Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. If Carthage had sent the requested men and supplies at this point, history would have been written very differently; but they did not. Although he is by far the most famous Hannibal, when further clarification is necessary he is usually referred to as "Hannibal, son of Hamilcar", or Hannibal the Barcid, the latter term applying to the family of his father, Hamilcar Barca. Hannibal. A street in Carthage, located near the Punic ports, bears his name as well as a stop of the Carthage metro, the TGM "Carthage Hannibal". [80], Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society. He succeeded, through prompt decision and speedy movement, in transporting his army to Italy by sea in time to meet Hannibal. There he commanded Hannibal to lay his hand on the body of the sacrificial victim and to swear that he would never be a friend to Rome" (3:11). Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military capacity of the Roman people. [88], According to Livy, the land occupied by Hannibal's army outside Rome in 211 BC was sold at the very time of its occupation and for the same price. Veterans and new recruits alike refused pay in order to defend the city. Hundreds of thousands will die, and Rome will win mastery of the known world. Famed for his incredible fifteen day journey across the Alps and for his great victories over the Romans at Trebia and Cannae, he remained undefeated in battle until his raw armies were crushed by Scipio at Zama in 203 B.C., leaving Carthage at the mercy of the … His father was Hamilcar Barca (l. 275-228 BCE), the great general of the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). 275-228 BCE), the great and undefeated hero from the first Punic War and the Mercenary War. [52] The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan mercenaries on the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks. P.313-314, Baier, Thomas. Mark, Joshua J. To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. The Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as their dictator. Barca (Punic: 𐤁𐤓𐤒, BRQ) is a Semitic cognomen meaning "lightning" or "thunderbolt",[8] a surname acquired by Hamilcar on account of the swiftness and ferocity of his attacks. (210). There Hannibal destroyed Flaminius' army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes, killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene). The Greek historian Polybius (l. c. 208-125 BCE) writes how Hannibal's father invited him to join an expedition to Spain when the boy was around nine years old. He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny. [98], Military academies all over the world continue to study Hannibal's exploits, especially his victory at Cannae.[99]. Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty. Its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. Although Rome had won the First Punic War, revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father never to be a friend of Rome. [33] Other scholars have doubts, proposing that Hannibal took the easier route across Petit Mount Cenis. [68] Suspicious that Antiochus was prepared to surrender him to the Romans, Hannibal fled to Crete, but he soon went back to Anatolia and sought refuge with Prusias I of Bithynia, who was engaged in warfare with Rome's ally, King Eumenes II of Pergamon. The forces detached to his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make up his losses. On the way, recognizing the importance of winning the people to his side, he portrayed himself as a liberator freeing the people of Spain from Roman control. Hannibal's army numbered 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 38 elephants, almost none of which would survive the harsh conditions of the Alps.[30]. Matyszak comments how "the modern concept of teenagers as somewhere between child and adult did not exist in the ancient world, and Hannibal was given charge of troops at an early age" (23). [69] Hannibal went on to serve Prusias in this war. This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity. [82], His legacy would be recorded by his Greek tutor, Sosylus of Lacedaemon. This erupted into full-scale mutiny under the leadership of Spendius and Matho and 70,000 Africans from Carthage's oppressed dependant territories flocked to join the mutineers, bringing supplies … [9] Although they did not inherit the surname from their father, Hamilcar's progeny are collectively known as the Barcids. The Romans and allied legions resolved to confront Hannibal and marched southward to Apulia. Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. [70] Hannibal also went on to defeat Eumenes in two other battles on land. Battle of Cannae - Initial Deploymentby The Department of History, United States Military Academy (Public Domain). This makes the battle one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of Ancient Rome, and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history (in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day). In 203 BC, after nearly fifteen years of fighting in Italy, and with the military fortunes of Carthage rapidly declining, Hannibal was recalled to Carthage to direct the defense of his native country against a Roman invasion under Scipio Africanus. The wars between Rome and Carthage will see some of the most bloody and savage battles of all time. Hannibal, however, could make no move on Rome because he lacked siege engines and reinforcements for his army. Hannibal marched on the city in 218 BCE, lay siege to it, and took it. [102][103] George S. Patton believed himself a reincarnation of Hannibal – as well as of many other people, including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier. Livy states that the Seleucid king consulted Hannibal on the strategic concerns of making war on Rome. Mark, J. J. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls. Before dying, Hannibal is said to have left behind a letter declaring, "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death". There is no doubt, as Bradford also notes, that had Hannibal "been fighting against any other nation in the ancient world...his overwhelming victories would have brought them to their knees and to an early capitulation" (210) but the cause of Hannibal's defeat was just as much the fault of the Carthaginian elite who refused to support the general and his troops who were fighting for their cause. [71] Prusias agreed, but the general was determined not to fall into his enemy's hands. After the war, Hannibal accepted a position as Chief Magistrate of Carthage at which he performed as well as he had as a military leader. Hannibal became a legend in his own lifetime and, years after his death, Roman mothers would continue to frighten their unwilling children to bed with the phrase "Hannibal ad Porto" (Hannibal is at the door). Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War. As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, "where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?" Hannibal (247-183 BCE) was the greatest general to emerge from the Carthaginian Barca family. In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under the direction of Claudius Marcellus, and later in Hispania under Scipio Africanus. In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a fruitless peace conference. He had the Carthaginians penned up near Capua where retreat was blocked by the Volturnus River. In 203 BC, Hannibal was recalled from Italy by the war party in Carthage. Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series. argue that factors used by De Beer to support Col de la Traversette including "gauging ancient place names against modern, close scrutiny of times of flood in major rivers and distant viewing of the Po plains" taken together with "massive radiocarbon and microbiological and parasitical evidence" from the alluvial sediments either side of the pass furnish "supporting evidence, proof if you will" that Hannibal's invasion went that way. [35] Radiocarbon dating secured dates of 2168BP or c.218BC, the year of Hannibal's march. Amid this, a figure will emerge who has become the stuff of myth and legend: Hannibal Barca. At the court of King Prusias of Bithynia in 183 BCE, with Rome still in pursuit, Hannibal chose to end his life rather than be taken by his enemies. Another opportunity presented itself soon after, a Roman army of 18,000 men being destroyed by Hannibal at the first battle of Herdonia with 16,000 Roman dead, freeing Apulia from the Romans for the year. [59] His arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war party, which placed him in command of a combined force of African levies and his mercenaries from Italy. [41] According to Polybius, he arrived in Italy accompanied by 20,000-foot soldiers, 4,000 horsemen, and only a few elephants. Hannibal next defeated his enemies at Lake Trasimeme and quickly took control of northern Italy. Hannibal's chief cavalry commander Maharbal led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, and they shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them. "Hannibal." Hannibal Barca (/ˈhænɪbəl/; Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋𐤟𐤁𐤓𐤒, ḤannibaÊ¿l Baraq; 247 â€“ between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded Carthage's main forces against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, and to plan battles accordingly. The Wars were notable for the Carthaginian General Hannibal's Crossing over the Alps with elephants in the Second Punic War and for Rome's complete razing of Carthage in the Third Punic War… Carthage lost the three wars. Map of Hannibals Route into Italyby The Department of History, United States Military Academy (GNU FDL). His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations centered mainly round the cities of Campania. Scipio was rather nettled by this, but nevertheless he asked Hannibal to whom he would give the third place, expecting that at least the third would be assigned to him; but Hannibal replied, "to myself; for when I was a young man I conquered Hispania and crossed the Alps with an army, the first after Hercules.". Philip, who attempted to exploit Rome's preoccupation in Italy to conquer Illyria, now found himself under attack from several sides at once and was quickly subdued by Rome and her Greek allies. The oligarchy, not Hannibal, controlled the strategic resources of Carthage. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations. [93][94][need quotation to verify], Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans. Scipio's father and uncle, two of the former commanders, had been killed fighting Hasdrubal Barca in Spain and, when the Roman senate called for a general to defend the city against Hannibal, all of the most likely commanders refused believing, after Cannae, that any such command was simply a suicide mission. After the start of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal boldly crossed the Alps and invaded Italy. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania. Smelling a stratagem (rightly), he stayed put. The two polities was the growing Roman republic and the African commercial city of Carthage. "The Traversette rockfall: geomorphological reconstruction and importance in interpreting classical history." Among the Roman warriors who survived Cannae was the man who would come to be known as Scipio Africanus the Elder. Upon reaching the mountains he was forced to leave behind his siege engines and a number of other supplies he felt would slow their progress and then had the army begin their ascent. When the Roman army advanced, the center of the Carthaginian line began to give way so that it seemed as though Varro had been correct and the center would break. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. [10] Modern historians occasionally refer to Hannibal's brothers as Hasdrubal Barca and Mago Barca to distinguish them from the multitudes of other Carthaginians named Hasdrubal and Mago,[citation needed] but this practice is ahistorical, and is rarely applied to Hannibal. He maintained this post for eight years until 221 BC. Hannibal's troops who were lost in combat were replaced with less well-trained and motivated mercenaries from Italy or Gaul. It seemed that Hannibal had to either fight his way out or surrender but then, one night, the Romans saw a line of torches moving from the Carthaginian camp emplacement toward an area they knew was held by a strong garrison of their own. We follow Hannibal throughout his campaigns as well as looking at the Punic Wars at large. Polybius writes how Hannibal, had a set of wigs made, each of which made him look like a man of a different age. He first took the city Carthago Nova and moved on from there to other victories. The decisive battle of Zama soon followed; the defeat removed Hannibal's air of invincibility. Matyszak writes: In the field, Hannibal remained umatched. Following the First Punic War the treaty between Carthage and Rome stipulated that Carthage could continue to occupy regions in Spain as long as they maintained the steady tribute they now owed to Rome and remained in certain areas. de Beer, S. G., 1969, Hannibal: Challenging Rome's supremacy, Viking, New York, NY. As for the second Punic War, pro-Roman historians, such as Polybius and Livy, have tried to blame it on the actions of the great Carthaginian general, Hannibal Barca, who some believe was motivated by a need to avenge the wrongs committed against Carthage as well as by his undying hatred of Rome. As a result, Hannibal fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war. He left a detachment of 20,000 troops to garrison the newly conquered region. During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups. P.126–128, Benz, Franz L. 1982. At this same time, the Carthaginian cavalry engaged the Roman cavalry and dispersed them, falling on the rear on the Roman infantry. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of interests between the existing empire of Carthage and the expanding Roman Republic. Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent. As a boy, Hannibal's father commanded him "to swear that he would never be a friend to Rome". "[48] At the same time, Hannibal tried to break the allegiance of Rome's allies by proving that Flaminius was powerless to protect them. Some qualities have been recognized by Hannibal since Antiquity: audacity, courage and pugnacity. 1 The End of the Second Punic War 2 Aftermath of the Second Punic War 2.1 Hannibal in Iberia 2.2 Hasdrubal in Italy 2.3 Hanno and Mago in Sicily 2.4 Carthaginian Revolution 3 The Egyptian War Hannibal, after receiving siege weapons from Carthage, lays siege to Rome. Victory in Italy was Hannibal’s sole objective. [45], The only alternative route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno. Neither side won. Hannibal attempted to lift the siege with an assault on the Roman siege lines but failed. The Romans sent the two consuls Lucius Aemilius Paulus (d. 216 BCE) and Caius Terentius Varro (served c. 218-200 BCE), with a force of over 80,000, against his position; Hannibal had less than 50,000 men under his command. Hannibal's Iberian and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind. The two armies met at the Ticino River where the Romans were defeated and Scipio almost killed, Carthaginian War Elephantby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua. "[2][14] According to the tradition, Hannibal's oath took place in the town of Peñíscola, today part of the Valencian Community, Spain. [24], Hannibal sent the booty from Saguntum to Carthage, a shrewd move which gained him much support from the government; Livy records that only Hanno II the Great spoke against him. The loss of the First Punic War led directly to the general Hannibal Barca invading Roman territory during the Second Punic War. In Rome, Scipio was also dealing with problems posed by his own senate as they accused him of sympathizing with Hannibal by pardoning and releasing him, accepting bribes, and misappropiating funds. Hannibal assumed command of the troops following his father's death and led them victoriously through a number of engagements until he stood almost at the gates of Rome; at which point he was stopped, not by the Romans, but through a lack of resources to take the city. Yet a different picture sometimes emerges. It is recorded in Carthaginian sources as ḤNBÊ¿L[3] (Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋). As Lazenby states, It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster—there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state. Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father. [2], Hannibal is the "hero" of teenager Sigmund Freud. He drew off 15,000 Roman soldiers, but the siege continued and Capua fell. He was betrayed to the Romans and committed suicide by poisoning himself. When his father drowned[16] in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair succeeded to his command of the army with Hannibal (then 18 years old) serving as an officer under him. Most recently, W.C. Mahaney has argued Col de la Traversette closest fits the records of ancient authors. Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, at Zama, the Romans were superior in cavalry and the Carthaginians had the edge in infantry. The Second Punic War broke out in 218 BC after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. What became her or her son is not known. In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua. Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage. He died the same year as Hannibal at the age of 53. His request for these necessary supplies was refused by Carthage because the senate did not want to exert the effort or spend the money. His following campaign in 220 BC was against the Vaccaei to the west, where he stormed the Vaccaen strongholds of Helmantice and Arbucala. Scholar Philip Matyszak notes: There is much we do not know about this man, though he was one of the greatest generals in antiquity. No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Gaius Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal. Mark, published on 29 March 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Hannibal (also known as Hannibal Barca, l. 247-183 BCE) was a Carthaginian general during the Second Punic War between Carthage and Rome (218-202 BCE). https://www.ancient.eu/hannibal/. Mahaney et al. Israel and Hellas: Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts. Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania, but Fabius had ensured that all the passes were blocked out of Campania. Hasdrubal … Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. No records exist of  Carthage awarding Hannibal any recognition for his service in Italy and he was honored more by Scipio's pardon and defense than by any actions on the part of his countrymen. by The Department of History, United States Military Academy (Public Domain), Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army. Hannibal still won a number of notable victories: completely destroying two Roman armies in 212 BC, and killing two consuls (including the famed Marcus Claudius Marcellus) in a battle in 208 BC. Studien zu Plautus' Poenulus. [51] Once the Roman Senate resumed their consular elections in 216 BC, they appointed Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus as consuls. These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. Hunt responds to this by proposing that Hannibal's Celtic guides purposefully misguided the Carthaginian general. Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground. Scipio, still in Spain, requested money and supplies from the Roman senate to take the fight to Hannibal by attacking Carthage; a move which, he was sure, would force Carthage to recall Hannibal from Italy to defend the city. Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he crossed the Pyrenees and reached the Rhône by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance, arriving at the Rhône in September. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society. The people of Rome mobilized to defend their city, which they were sure Hannibal would move on next. Gnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius (the new consuls of Rome) were expecting Hannibal to advance on Rome, and they took their armies to block the eastern and western routes that Hannibal could use. In the musical Phantom Of The Opera there is a fictional opera about Hannibal, called Hannibal, and is present at the beginning of the musical. This, he wrote, made Hannibal believe that he would die in Libya, but instead, it was at the Bithynian Libyssa that he would die. Hannibal is generally regarded[by whom?] Last modified March 29, 2018. He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim "Hannibal ante portas" ("Hannibal is at the gates!") There Hannibal had an opportunity to show his masterful military skill at the Trebia in December of the same year, after wearing down the superior Roman infantry, when he cut it to pieces with a surprise attack and ambush from the flanks. The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines. In Spain, the Carthaginians had been defeated by Scipio but Hannibal had no knowledge of this; he only knew his brother had been killed but not that Spain was under Roman control. Hannibal marched boldly around Flaminius' left flank, unable to draw him into battle by mere devastation, and effectively cut him off from Rome (thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history). Phönizisch-Punische Grammatik. As always, Hannibal spent time learning about his enemy, their strengths and weaknesses, and knew that Varro was eager for a fight and over-confident of success. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae. He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim "Hannibal ante portas" ("Hannibal is at the gates!") They eventually found him on the left bank of the Aufidus River, and encamped ten kilometres (6 mi) away. [61] After an audit confirmed Carthage had the resources to pay the indemnity without increasing taxation, Hannibal initiated a reorganization of state finances aimed at eliminating corruption and recovering embezzled funds. The Battle of Zama - Elephant Chargeby Mohammad Adil (CC BY-SA). He writes indeed in The Interpretation of Dreams: "Hannibal and Rome symbolized for the adolescent that I was the opposition between the tenacity of Judaism and the organizing spirit of the Catholic Church".[107]. During this same time, in Rome, the charges against Scipio had disgusted him so much that he retreated to his estate outside the city and left orders in his will that he be buried there instead of in Rome. By 220 BC, the Romans had annexed the area as Cisalpine Gaul. [50] This was a severe blow to Fabius' prestige and soon after this his period of dictatorial power ended. Lecture 13: "The Second Punic War". [91][92] Although the long-term consequences of Hannibal's war are debatable, this war was undeniably Rome's "finest hour". Publius Cornelius Scipio was the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal (he was also the father of Scipio Africanus). However, only a few of the Italian city-states that he had expected to gain as allies defected to him. As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later. [43] From the start, he seems to have calculated that he would have to operate without aid from Hispania. It is believed that his refusal to bring the war to Rome itself was due to a lack of commitment from Carthage of men, money, and material â€” principally siege equipment. According to Polybius 23, 13, p. 423: It is a remarkable and very cogent proof of Hannibal's having been by nature a real leader and far superior to anyone else in statesmanship, that though he spent seventeen years in the field, passed through so many barbarous countries, and employed to aid him in desperate and extraordinary enterprises numbers of men of different nations and languages, no one ever dreamt of conspiring against him, nor was he ever deserted by those who had once joined him or submitted to him. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Ronald Mellor considered the Greek scholar a loyal partisan of Scipio Aemilianus,[95] while H. Ormerod does not view him as an 'altogether unprejudiced witness' when it came to his pet peeves, the Aetolians, the Carthaginians, and the Cretans. [44] The victory was minor, but it encouraged the Gauls and Ligurians to join the Carthaginian cause. Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars. Strategic ability had been comprehended only on a minor scale. This was a severe blow to Fabius’ prestige. [19] Silius suggests a Greek origin for Imilce, but Gilbert Charles-Picard argued for a Punic heritage based on an etymology from the Semitic root m-l-k ('chief, the 'king'). [57] Indeed, Fabius received the name "Cunctator" ("the Delayer") because of his policy of not meeting Hannibal in open battle but through attrition. Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.[84]. The loss of this war spelled the end for the Punic and Carthaginian culture as they were unable to acquire enough resources in the Second Punic War … It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome. The historian Ernle Bradford writes that Hannibal's war against the Romans, may be regarded as the last effort of the old eastern and Semitic peoples to prevent the domination of the Mediterranean world by a European state. [54] As Polybius notes, "How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae, than those that preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome's allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman Power. to express their fear or anxiety. Fabius' tactic of refusing to meet Hannibal in open battle was beginning to wear on the Romans who demanded direct action. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Historical events which led to the defeat of Carthage during the First Punic War when his father commanded the Carthaginian Army also led Hannibal to plan the invasion of Italy by land across the Alps. Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. [52], After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower. Oct 26, 2020 - Explore Trevor Robichaux Sr.'s board "Hannibal Barca" on Pinterest. Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him had abated. According to Appian, several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal served as a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio arrived there on a diplomatic mission from Rome. But this gain was not without loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia. Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage. Hanno had been instrumental in denying Hannibal's requested reinforcements following the battle at Cannae. Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in a semicircle in the center with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse. Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, "I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome. Hannibal was right, however; his troops were exhausted after Cannae and he had neither elephants nor siege engines to take the city. Background . By this time, Scipio was already set to invade North Africa and his plan would work exactly as he predicted. [27] He fought his way through the northern tribes to the foothills of the Pyrenees, subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting. On his return home, laden with many spoils, a coalition of Spanish tribes, led by the Carpetani, attacked, and Hannibal won his first major battlefield success and showed off his tactical skills at the battle of the River Tagus. He was the son of Hamilcar Barca (ca. [56] The works of Roman writers such as Livy (64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17), Frontinus (c. AD 40 – 103), and Juvenal (1st to 2nd century AD) show a grudging admiration for Hannibal. (The word “Punic,” later the name for the series of wars between Carthage and Rome, was derived from the Latin word for Phoenician.) Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce ), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The towns of southern Hispania were subdued by Carthage. In 208 BCE, he defeated Hasdrubal at the Battle of Baecula using the same tactic Hannibal had at Cannae. Hannibal took the vow gladly - and never forgot it. [75], Pliny the Elder[76] and Plutarch, in his life of Flamininus,[77] record that Hannibal's tomb was at Libyssa on the coast of the Sea of Marmara. Livy also records that Hannibal married a woman of Castulo, a powerful Spanish city closely allied with Carthage. In Hannibal’s War, J. F. Lazenby provides the first scholarly account in English since 1886 solely devoted to the Second Punic War, which some have called the first "world war" for mastery of the Mediterranean world. His flight ended in the court of Bithynia. Hannibal's profile appears on the Tunisian five dinar bill issued on 8 November 1993, as well as on another new bill put into circulation on 20 March 2013. Scipio began in Spain - not Italy - in an effort to subdue Hasdrubal first and prevent reinforcements from reaching Italy. At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus, who was held in suspicion by the Romans. [37] If Hannibal had ascended the Col de la Traversette, the Po Valley would indeed have been visible from the pass's summit, vindicating Polybius's account.[38][39]. He then sent word to Carthage for more men and supplies, especially siege engines, but his request was denied. Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics carefully in the same way that Hannibal had always taken pains to know his enemy and out-think his opponents. [87], According to the historian Livy, the Romans feared Hannibal's military genius, and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC, "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought. [89] This may not be true, but as Lazenby states, "could well be, exemplifying as it does not only the supreme confidence felt by the Romans in ultimate victory, but also the way in which something like normal life continued. Hasdrubal pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage's Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebro so long as Rome did not expand south of it. There is even an account of him at a very young age (9 years old) begging his father to take him to an overseas war. Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. The first Hannibal knew of Hasdrubal's defeat was when a Roman contingent threw his brother's head to the sentries of his camp. According to some, Libyssa was sited at Gebze (between Bursa and Üskudar), but W. M. Leake,[78] identifying Gebze with ancient Dakibyza, placed it further west. In 212 BC, Marcellus conquered Syracuse and the Romans destroyed the Carthaginian army in Sicily in 211–210 BC. In 210 BC, Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at the Battle of Herdonia (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army and, in 208 BC, destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri at the Battle of Petelia. Hamilcar held Hannibal over the fire roaring in the chamber and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome. "[62][61], Seven years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed by Carthage's renewed prosperity and suspicious that Hannibal had been in contact with Antiochus III of Syria, sent a delegation to Carthage alleging Hannibal was helping an enemy of Rome. He died in 183 BCE by drinking poison. Suggested readings include ḤannobaÊ¿al,[4] ḤannibaÊ¿l, or ḤannibaÊ¿al,[5][6] meaning "BaÊ¿al/The lord is gracious", "BaÊ¿al Has Been Gracious",[6][7] or "The Grace of BaÊ¿al". Hannibal's commander of the cavalry, Maharbal, encouraged Hannibal to attack anyway, confident they could win the war at this point when the Roman army was in disarray and the people in a panic. The Carthaginian general advised equipping a fleet and landing a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself. Yves Lacoste et Camille Lacoste-Dujardin [sous la dir. It was a devastating defeat for Rome which resulted in a number of the Italian city-states defecting to Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon (r. 221-179 BCE) declaring in favor of Hannibal and initiating the First Macedonian War with Rome. Hannibal then marched to the Roman supply depot of Cannae, which he took easily, and then gave his men time to rest. The war causes many deaths and lots of destruction. Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest way to central Italy. Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in the Battle of Ticinus. In 207 BC, he succeeded in making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal. Even so, he continued to do his best for his people throughout his life and remained true to the vow he had taken when young; to the end, he remained an enemy of Rome and his name would be remembered as Rome's greatest adversary for generations - and even to the present day. [32] Stanford geoarchaeologist Patrick Hunt argues that Hannibal took the Col de Clapier mountain pass, claiming the Clapier most accurately met ancient depictions of the route: wide view of Italy, pockets of year-round snow, and a large campground. On hearing, however, of his brother's defeat and death at the battle of the Metaurus, he retired to Calabria, where he maintained himself for the ensuing years. His army grew steadily with new recruits until he had 50,000 infantry and 9,000 cavalry by the time he reached the Alps. These wars were fought between the cities of Carthage in North Africa and Rome in northern Italy for supremacy in the Mediterranean region and the second war resulted directly from the first. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas (Ἀννίβας). [66], In 190 BC, Hannibal was placed in command of a Seleucid fleet but was defeated in the battle of the Eurymedon. After the Battle of Trebbia (218 BCE), where he again defeated the Romans, he retreated for the winter to the north where he developed his plans for the spring campaign and developed various strategems to keep from being assassinated by spies in his camp or hired killers sent by the Romans. [72] Cornelius Nepos[73] and Livy,[74] however, tell a different story, namely that the ex-consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, on discovering that Hannibal was in Bithynia, went there in an embassy to demand his surrender from King Prusias. He is considered one of the greatest generals of antiquity and his tactics are still studied and used in the present day. When Hannibal refused, Maharbal said, "You know how to win a victory, Hannibal, but you do not know how to use it." Scipio defended Hannibal as an honorable man and kept the Romans from sending a delegation demanding his arrest but Hannibal understood it was only a matter of time before his own countrymen turned him over and so he fled the city in 195 BCE for Tyre and then moved on to Asia Minor where he was given the position of consultant to Antiochus III (the Great, r. 223-187 BCE) of the Seleucid Empire. Hannibal was an inexperienced sailor, as was his crew, and was defeated even though, much to his credit, he came close to winning. Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command[.]"[18]. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. [26] Hasdrubal was assassinated around the same time (221 BC), bringing Hannibal to the fore. Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in an indirect manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander. The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of 218 BC with repercussions for more than two decades. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal (lit. Hannibal was a common Carthaginian personal name. [83][need quotation to verify] It is plausible to suggest that Hannibal engendered the greatest fear Rome had towards an enemy. Nothing is known of his mother and, although he was married at the time of some of his greatest victories, no records make mention of his wife other than her name, I… The flow of defections to the Carthaginian side slowed and then stopped. 1, pp. This eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the combat area. The Romans deprived Hannibal of a large-scale battle and instead assaulted his weakening army with multiple smaller armies in an attempt to both weary him and create unrest in his troops. He enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome; however, those reforms were unpopular with members of the Carthaginian aristocracy and in Rome, and he fled into voluntary exile. Hannibal and Second Punic War General The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. He crossed without opposition over both the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye[46] because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno, but he lost a large part of his force in the marshy lowlands of the Arno.[47]. de Beer, S. G., 1974, Hannibal: The struggle for power in the Mediterranean, Book Club Associates, London. Hannibal was recalled from Italy to meet this threat and the two forces met on the field in 202 BCE at the Battle of Zama. Thank you! In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain. The wars between Rome and Carthage are called the Punic Wars. No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds. [15], Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Indeed, the breadth of his vision gave rise to his grand strategy of conquering Rome by opening a northern front and subduing allied city-states on the peninsula, rather than by attacking Rome directly. Hannibal, a sworn enemy of all things Roman, declared war against them and this was the start of the Second Punic War (218–201 BC). The members of the senate, who had refused to send him aid when he needed it in Italy, accused him of betraying the interests of the state by not taking Rome when he had the chance but, still, Hannibal remained true to the interests of his people until the senators trumped up further charges and denounced Hannibal to Rome claiming he was making Carthage a power again so as to challenge the Romans. The Punic Wars were a clash of two growing societies and their aspirations for supremacy of Mediterranean.

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