ethical competence in psychology

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December 1, 2020. (a) A multiple relationship occurs when a psychologist is in a professional role with a person and (1) at the same time is in another role with the same person, (2) at the same time is in a relationship with a person closely associated with or related to the person with whom the psychologist has the professional relationship, or (3) promises to enter into another relationship in the future with the person or a person closely associated with or related to the person. Psychologists responsible for education and training programs take reasonable steps to ensure that the programs are designed to provide the appropriate knowledge and proper experiences, and to meet the requirements for licensure, certification, or other goals for which claims are made by the program. The Preamble and General Principles are aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology. They go on to say that if a practitioner looks through an ethical lens first, they may be compromising the needs of their client by putting their own needs first. (See also Standard 3.05, Multiple Relationships. Psychologists have a primary obligation and take reasonable precautions to protect confidential information obtained through or stored in any medium, recognizing that the extent and limits of confidentiality may be regulated by law or established by institutional rules or professional or scientific relationship. (a) Psychologists administer, adapt, score, interpret, or use assessment techniques, interviews, tests, or instruments in a manner and for purposes that are appropriate in light of the research on or evidence of the usefulness and proper application of the techniques. This model involves “the psychologist asking himself or herself a variety of questions to review personal reactions, determine the facts of the case, make a preliminary plan, examine the legal consequences of the initial plan, identify and assess options to refine the initial plan, choose a course of action, and implement the decision and evaluate the outcome” (p. 153). (2009). The trainees also raised ethical questions regarding therapist competence, the beneficence and non-maleficence of therapeutic actions, and client autonomy. (See also Standard 8.07, Deception in Research.). Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4(Suppl. 8.05 Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. 10.10 Terminating Therapy A psychologist can refer a client on these grounds without repercussions when the underlying issue is the psychologist does not want to work with that client, whatever the reason may be. The Ethical Practice of Psychotherapy: Easily Within Our Reach. According to the literature (as cited in Fisher, 2009), ethical decision making in diverse cultural settings must be sensitive to cultural attitudes of individualism versus collectivism, historical and contemporary discrimination with society and psychology as a discipline, sociopolitical factors influencing definitions of race, ethnicity, and variations in immigration history, acculturation, cultural/ethnic identity, language, and mixed race/ethnic heritage. 1.01 Misuse of Psychologists' Work The British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) have both issued a code of ethics in psychology that provides guidelines for the conduct of research. 8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research Cultural Competence as an Ethical Requirement: Introducing a New Educational Model. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 2.10 (2010). Characterized by “feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration [that] interfere with everyday... Western society is becoming increasingly secular as religion disappears from the public sphere. Gallardo, M. E., Johnson, J., Parham, T. A., & Carter, J. Comment: Attendees at the 2005 ELC were the first American audience to preview a draft of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychology-which psychologists worldwide may use, among other professional goals, to help establish cultural … (See also Standard 6.02c, Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work. It is an ethical standard to remain competence throughout one’s psychological career and it is through competency that one can make sound ethical decisions. The desire to uphold ethical standards, no matter what the cost to a specific client, is in itself unethical. (b) If confidential information concerning recipients of psychological services is entered into databases or systems of records available to persons whose access has not been consented to by the recipient, psychologists use coding or other techniques to avoid the inclusion of personal identifiers. Results from this study suggest the REST-KIT could be a useful resource for trainers and researchers. They conduct the research in accordance with the approved research protocol. Those portions of test materials that include client/patient responses are included in the definition of test data. Cultural competence: An ethical must in teaching and research. Ethical principles of psychologists. ), 4.02 Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality ), 1.05 Reporting Ethical Violations Retrieved June 14, 2010, from http://www.ilga.gov/commission/jcar/admincode/068/06801400sections.html. Generally, competence is established through training, experience, supervised practice, or a combination of these activities. Such action might include referral to state or national committees on professional ethics, to state licensing boards, or to the appropriate institutional authorities. 1.07 Improper Complaints Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 444-451. Introduction and Applicability (d) Psychologists make reasonable efforts to minimize the discomfort, infection, illness, and pain of animal subjects. Home | Current Issue | Blog | Archives | Gallardo and colleagues (2009) referenced Paul (1967) to answer the above question with another question, “What treatment, by whom, is most effective for this individual, with that specific problem, and under which set of circumstances?” (p.429). This code was written by the Ethics Committee of the British Psychological Society. Psychologists have values and these values are infused throughout their professional work (Bergin, 1991; Meara, Schimdt, & Day, 1996; Prilleltensky, 1997; Remley & Herlihy, 2007; as cited in Shiles, 2009). The newsletter highlights recent selections from the journal and useful tips from our blog. This perspective stresses the importance of continued professional growth through a process of ongoing self-reflection and reexamination of one’s competencies and efforts consistent with a commitment to continuing education. If psychologists' ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists make known their commitment to this Ethics Code and take steps to resolve the conflict in a responsible manner in keeping with basic principles of human rights. Sexual harassment can consist of a single intense or severe act or of multiple persistent or pervasive acts. The current version of the ethics code, which introduced the distinction between … Ethical principles of psychologists (Amended June 2, 1989). (a) Public statements include but are not limited to paid or unpaid advertising, product endorsements, grant applications, licensing applications, other credentialing applications, brochures, printed matter, directory listings, personal resumes or curricula vitae, or comments for use in media such as print or electronic transmission, statements in legal proceedings, lectures and public oral presentations, and published materials. (b) Psychologists who request data from other psychologists to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis may use shared data only for the declared purpose. However, despite the central importance of competencies, the discipline of psychology has struggled to identify, define, and operationalize the competencies required by registered psychologists (Nash and Larkin, 2012). (See also Standards 3.05, Multiple Relationships; 6.04, Fees and Financial Arrangements; 6.05, Barter with Clients/Patients; 7.07, Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees; 10.05, Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients; 10.06, Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients; 10.07, Therapy with Former Sexual Partners; and 10.08, Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients. Effective date June 1, 2003 with amendments effective June 1, 2010 and January 1, 2017. According to Searight & Searight (2009), psychologists practicing under the APA 2002 Ethics Code will likely have to address the conflict between promoting the client’s welfare and insuring competence when delegating services. Introduction 1.1. Relying upon General Principles for either of these reasons distorts both their meaning and purpose. STANDARD 2.01: BOUNDARIES OF COMPETENCE. Also, ethical dilemmas would more likely to be addressed correctly if they had been discussed previously within the confines of an ethics round rather than as one is occurring, at which time emotionality can be high and objectivity can be skewed. Advancing the Culture of Competence. ISSN: 2153-5760. competence, therapist impairment and burnout, 2. Membership in the APA commits members and student affiliates to comply with the standards of the APA Ethics Code and to the rules and procedures used to enforce them. (1963). Psychologists do not accept as therapy clients/patients persons with whom they have engaged in sexual intimacies. right to refuse treatment, confidentiality, dual 4. 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation Shiles, M. (2009). (c) Except where precluded by the actions of clients/patients or third-party payors, prior to termination psychologists provide pretermination counseling and suggest alternative service providers as appropriate. The program is titled the Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Training Kit (REST-KIT) and is based upon James Rest’s (1983) four-component model of moral decision making (Rogers-Sirin & Sirin, 2009). Standards of competency represent the foundation for the credibility of any profession. Psychologists may unintentionally harm their clients of culturally diverse groups by invalidating their life experiences, defining their cultural values or differences as deviant, or imposing the values of dominant culture upon them (Fisher, 2009). American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073. (c) Psychologists who offer services, products, or information via electronic transmission inform clients/patients of the risks to privacy and limits of confidentiality. Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. Psychologists who develop tests and other assessment techniques use appropriate psychometric procedures and current scientific or professional knowledge for test design, standardization, validation, reduction or elimination of bias, and recommendations for use. Fisher, C. B. Competency and General Ethical Principles Standards of competency represent the foundation for the credibility of any profession. Second is acquiring professional skills. The American Psychological Association (APA) publishes the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct1 which outlines aspirational principles as well as enforceable standards that psychologistsshould use when making decisions. (c) A paid advertisement relating to psychologists' activities must be identified or clearly recognizable as such. Key competencies in ethics include knowing and understanding codes of ethics, being able recognize and analyze ethical situations, and trying to resolve them. Shiles (2009) states that professional competency is not a fixed construct, meaning that psychologists are either incompetent or competent. (a) Psychologists refrain from initiating an activity when they know or should know that there is a substantial likelihood that their personal problems will prevent them from performing their work-related activities in a competent manner. (a) Psychologists delivering services to or through organizations provide information beforehand to clients and when appropriate those directly affected by the services about (1) the nature and objectives of the services, (2) the intended recipients, (3) which of the individuals are clients, (4) the relationship the psychologist will have with each person and the organization, (5) the probable uses of services provided and information obtained, (6) who will have access to the information, and (7) limits of confidentiality. (2002). 01 Boundaries of Competence. Kerns, R. D., Berry, S., Frantsve, L. M., & Linton, J. C. (2009). American Psychological Association. The APA has previously published its Ethics Code as follows: American Psychological Association. Competence. The fact that a given conduct is not specifically addressed by an Ethical Standard does not mean that it is necessarily either ethical or unethical. (a) Psychologists terminate therapy when it becomes reasonably clear that the client/patient no longer needs the service, is not likely to benefit, or is being harmed by continued service. However, making a request for deferment of adjudication of an ethics complaint pending the outcome of litigation does not alone constitute noncooperation. (c) Psychologists explain any deception that is an integral feature of the design and conduct of an experiment to participants as early as is feasible, preferably at the conclusion of their participation, but no later than at the conclusion of the data collection, and permit participants to withdraw their data. The standards in this Ethics Code will be used to adjudicate complaints brought concerning alleged conduct occurring on or after the effective date. (See also Standards 8.03, Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research; 8.05, Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research; and 8.07, Deception in Research.). Ethical standards of psychologists. The modifiers used in some of the standards of this Ethics Code (e.g., reasonably, appropriate, potentially) are included in the standards when they would (1) allow professional judgment on the part of psychologists, (2) eliminate injustice or inequality that would occur without the modifier, (3) ensure applicability across the broad range of activities conducted by psychologists, or (4) guard against a set of rigid rules that might be quickly outdated. 9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results (See also Standard 2.01b and c, Boundaries of Competence.). (See also Standards 2.01b and c, Boundaries of Competence, and 3.01, Unfair Discrimination. It is assumed new psychologists received adequate training in graduate school as a student but this assumption may not be accurately. (See also Standards 1.02, Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority, and 1.03, Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands. ), 9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons American Psychologist, 45, 390-395. (c) Psychologists ensure that all individuals under their supervision who are using animals have received instruction in research methods and in the care, maintenance, and handling of the species being used, to the extent appropriate to their role. Please read assignment closely! Differences in Ethical Decision-Making and Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Anxiety and Depression, Placebo Administration to Depressed Patients: An Analysis of the Ethics of the Placebo in Clinical Practice, Pain and Power: BDSM as Spiritual Expression, A Quantitative Evaluation of Shame Resilience Theory, Understanding Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Teenagers with High-Functioning Autism, Intergenerational Intimate Partner Violence: Pathways of Genetic and Environmental Interactions, The Weight of Emotions on Decision-Making: A Comparative Analysis, A Historical Perspective on the Cultural Connotations Surrounding Eating Disorders, The Psychology of Romance: The Impact of Personality Traits on Romantic Relationships. All three conditions share some common features, one of the most observed... Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue that results in social, psychological, emotional, and physical consequences. Ethical dilemmas are not new to the practice of psychology and their resolutions will never be clear-cut answers. Another approach to ethical impasses is analyzing how one chooses to view the situation at hand. (See also Standard 2.04, Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments. Given the multitude of variables involved, it is easy to see how an ethical dilemma may present itself between client and psychotherapist. However, these studies present relatively unaddressed ethical concerns. Barnett, J. E. (2008). Individual and Cultural Diversity. In these activities psychologists do not steal, cheat or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact. Monitor on Psychology, 36 (11). When a psychologist is faced with an ethical quandary, using the decision making models outlined earlier can help psychologist reach the best decision for their spec… If the conflict is unresolvable via such means, psychologists may adhere to the requirements of the law, regulations, or other governing authority in keeping with basic principles of human rights. They provide opportunity for the prospective participants to ask questions and receive answers. Component III, moral motivation, requires having the necessary motivation or will to act in an ethical manner. Psychologists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work. (See also Standards 4.01, Maintaining Confidentiality, and 6.01, Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records.). Component IV involves moral action and can be described as having the moral character to execute and implement what ought to be done. This paper discusses the APA code of ethics as it pertains to competence, current dilemmas regarding competency in psychology, and recommendations to improve competency in clinical practice. When covering a story that will negatively impact the public it is often important for a news organization to break the story as quickly as possible. Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with individuals they know to be close relatives, guardians, or significant others of current clients/patients. (2010). According to Sporrong and colleagues, ethical competence at work requires the ability to integrate perception, reflection, and action, and to understand oneself as being responsible for one’s own actions. American Psychologist, 18, 56-60. Psychologists do not engage in sexual relationships with students or supervisees who are in their department, agency, or training center or over whom psychologists have or are likely to have evaluative authority. 9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments (a) Psychologists take reasonable steps to avoid harming their clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, organizational clients, and others with whom they work, and to minimize harm where it is foreseeable and unavoidable.Â. (b) When offering professional services as an inducement for research participation, psychologists clarify the nature of the services, as well as the risks, obligations, and limitations. One needs to be able to identify unethical situations and have the abilities necessary to correct them. Sporrong, S., Arnetz, B., Hansson, M. G., Westerholm, P., & Hoglund, A. T. (2007). She also states that ethical decision making involves a commitment to applying the Ethics Code to construct rather than discover solutions to ethical dilemmas. (See also Standard 2.05, Delegation of Work to Others.). When the sanction to be imposed by APA is less than expulsion, the 2001 Rules and Procedures do not guarantee an opportunity for an in-person hearing, but generally provide that complaints will be resolved only on the basis of a submitted record. 2.04 Bases for Scientific and Professional JudgmentsPsychologists' work is based upon established scientific and professional knowledge of the discipline. Psychologists cooperate in ethics investigations, proceedings, and resulting requirements of the APA or any affiliated state psychological association to which they belong. When consulting with colleagues, (1) psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the identification of a client/patient, research participant, or other person or organization with whom they have a confidential relationship unless they have obtained the prior consent of the person or organization or the disclosure cannot be avoided, and (2) they disclose information only to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the consultation. (b) Psychologists evaluate students and supervisees on the basis of their actual performance on relevant and established program requirements. ), (b) If it becomes apparent that psychologists may be called on to perform potentially conflicting roles (such as family therapist and then witness for one party in divorce proceedings), psychologists take reasonable steps to clarify and modify, or withdraw from, roles appropriately. Psychologists do not terminate therapy to circumvent this standard. Searight, H. R., & Searight, B. K. (2009). These Guidelines are relevant to the supervision arrangements that psychologists undertake in order to maintain and develop their professional competence. (c) When psychologists conduct a record review or provide consultation or supervision and an individual examination is not warranted or necessary for the opinion, psychologists explain this and the sources of information on which they based their conclusions and recommendations. In addition, APA may take action against a member after his or her conviction of a felony, expulsion or suspension from an affiliated state psychological association, or suspension or loss of licensure. As soon as feasible, they provide information about the results and conclusions of such services to appropriate persons. According to recent estimates, over nine percent of the United States population has some degree of depression—a proportion that makes depression one of the most common and serious mental conditions in the country (“An Estimated 1 in 10 U.S. 2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts(a) Psychologists refrain from initiating an activity when they know or should know that there is a substantial likelihood that their personal problems will prevent them from performing their work-related activities in a competent manner. According to Rogers-Sirin & Sirin (2009), Rest (1983) suggested that morality is not a unitary process but rather a multifaceted phenomenon. Outside of the decision-making process, psychologists can be proactive in minimizing the occurrence of ethical issues and ensuring that all involved are on the same level of ethical understanding. By being aware of potential conflicts in ethics beforehand, psychologists can take preventive measures to avoid having to face an ethical dilemma. Competency Benchmarks: A Model for Understanding and Measuring Competence in Professional Psychology Across Training Levels. (f) When assuming forensic roles, psychologists are or become reasonably familiar with the judicial or administrative rules governing their roles. It is important to understand the meaning of competence and its importance in all fields of psychology. The focus has been on trait similarity (i.e. Ethical Standard 2. (See also Standards 2.01, Boundaries of Competence, and 9.06, Interpreting Assessment Results.). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and... Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee, 1.02, Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority, 1.03, Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands, 1.04, Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations, 1.08, Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents, 7.07, Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees, 10.05, Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients, 10.06, Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients, 10.07, Therapy with Former Sexual Partners, 10.08, Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients, 6.02c, Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work, 8.03, Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research, 8.05, Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research, 2.04, Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments, 6.01, Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records, 3.12, Interruption of Psychological Services, 3.09, Cooperation with Other Professionals, 5.03, Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs, 5.01, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements, 7.02, Descriptions of Education and Training Programs, 5.01a, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements, 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality, 2018 APA Ethics Committee Rules and Procedures, APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2017), Revision of Ethical Standard 3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002, as Amended 2010), 2010 Amendments to the 2002 "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct", © 2020 American Psychological Association. (1979). If a psychologist does not follow these obligations, according to Fisher, they are in violation of the 2002 APA Ethics Code. “Competencies” are elements of competence (Kaslow et al., 2004) that are observable, measurable, containable, practical, derived by experts, and flexible (Stratford, 1994). 5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs (See also Standards 3.04, Avoiding Harm, and 3.07, Third-Party Requests for Services.). 3.01 Unfair Discrimination American Psychological Association. These are all dilemmas that a psychologist might face when working with clients with limited English proficiency. Before recording the voices or images of individuals to whom they provide services, psychologists obtain permission from all such persons or their legal representatives. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4(Suppl. (See also Standard 1.01, Misuse of Psychologists' Work.). Life-Long Competency Development in Clinical Health Psychology. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research. (a) Psychologists discuss with persons (including, to the extent feasible, persons who are legally incapable of giving informed consent and their legal representatives) and organizations with whom they establish a scientific or professional relationship (1) the relevant limits of confidentiality and (2) the foreseeable uses of the information generated through their psychological activities. Although relevant to all psychologists, these Guidelines To the degree to which they exercise control, psychologists responsible for announcements, catalogs, brochures, or advertisements describing workshops, seminars, or other non-degree-granting educational programs ensure that they accurately describe the audience for which the program is intended, the educational objectives, the presenters, and the fees involved. This clarification includes the role of the psychologist (e.g., therapist, consultant, diagnostician, or expert witness), an identification of who is the client, the probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the fact that there may be limits to confidentiality. Psychologists' work is based upon established scientific and professional knowledge of the discipline. ), 6.06 Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Sources What the client may believe is ethical behavior may not be the therapist’s opinion or vice versa. About The Journal | Submissions Working With Foreign Language Interpreters: Recommendations for Psychological Practice. The procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving complaints of unethical conduct are described in the current Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee. They are concerned about the ethical compliance of their colleagues' scientific and professional conduct. (See also Standard 9.11, Maintaining Test Security.). Discuss ethical standards pertaining to (b) Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with former clients/patients even after a two-year interval except in the most unusual circumstances. Recognize therapist impairment and burnout. 9.11 Maintaining Test Security (b) If scientific or humane values justify delaying or withholding this information, psychologists take reasonable measures to reduce the risk of harm. Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Practicing psychologists should have a firm background in these competencies which is built up in the early years of their career, during graduate school, when one first learns of all the necessary foundational competencies. This standard does not apply when an intervention would violate confidentiality rights or when psychologists have been retained to review the work of another psychologist whose professional conduct is in question. Rogers-Sirin, L., & Sirin, S. R. (2009). (g) When it is appropriate that an animal's life be terminated, psychologists proceed rapidly, with an effort to minimize pain and in accordance with accepted procedures. Psychologists create, and to the extent the records are under their control, maintain, disseminate, store, retain, and dispose of records and data relating to their professional and scientific work in order to (1) facilitate provision of services later by them or by other professionals, (2) allow for replication of research design and analyses, (3) meet institutional requirements, (4) ensure accuracy of billing and payments, and (5) ensure compliance with law. Therefore, solutions will not be addressed within the confines of this article but rather, systematic ways to address ethical dilemmas and ways to ensure psychologists are practicing competently and with ethical obligation to uphold. The American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles (A-E) and specific Ethical Standards. Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). Areas covered include but are not limited to the clinical, counseling, and school practice of psychology; research; teaching; supervision of trainees; public service; policy development; social intervention; development of assessment instruments; conducting assessments; educational counseling; organizational consulting; forensic activities; program design and evaluation; and administration. Ethical standards of psychologists. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 2(10). Emotions, the way that we feel in a particular moment, are also involved in how we respond to others. This article examines the dark history of human experimentation on offenders and other stigmatized groups in order to substantiate the need for ethics policies. (See also Standards 3.05, Multiple Relationships, and 6.04, Fees and Financial Arrangements. Licensed clinical psychologists will encounter many ethical dilemmas regarding competency during their careers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 354-360. Learn more | Blog | Submit. Gallardo and colleagues (2009) ask the question, “do practitioners and students begin their therapeutic decision-making process with an ethical lens first and foremost, or do they begin the therapeutic process with a cultural lens at the forefront?” (p. 427). Psychologists do not file or encourage the filing of ethics complaints that are made with reckless disregard for or willful ignorance of facts that would disprove the allegation. (a) Psychologists who engage others to create or place public statements that promote their professional practice, products, or activities retain professional responsibility for such statements. Experiments involving human subjects are increasingly utilized in criminal justice research. Principle E: Respect for People's Rights and Dignity It is not enough to understand the field of psychology and its ethics code. ), 6.02 Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work Understand the ethics of therapist competence. 9.02 Use of Assessments ), 4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality 5.05 Testimonials ), 2.05 Delegation of Work to OthersPsychologists who delegate work to employees, supervisees, or research or teaching assistants or who use the services of others, such as interpreters, take reasonable steps to (1) avoid delegating such work to persons who have a multiple relationship with those being served that would likely lead to exploitation or loss of objectivity; (2) authorize only those responsibilities that such persons can be expected to perform competently on the basis of their education, training, or experience, either independently or with the level of supervision being provided; and (3) see that such persons perform these services competently. (c) Psychologists using the services of an interpreter obtain informed consent from the client/patient to use that interpreter, ensure that confidentiality of test results and test security are maintained, and include in their recommendations, reports, and diagnostic or evaluative statements, including forensic testimony, discussion of any limitations on the data obtained. Clinical Competency and Ethics in Psychology. (e) In those emerging areas in which generally recognized standards for preparatory training do not yet exist, psychologists nevertheless take reasonable steps to ensure the competence of their work and to protect clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, organizational clients, and others from harm. (d) If limitations to services can be anticipated because of limitations in financing, this is discussed with the recipient of services as early as is feasible. This Ethics Code provides a common set of principles and standards upon which psychologists build their professional and scientific work. ), (b) Psychologists conducting intervention research involving the use of experimental treatments clarify to participants at the outset of the research (1) the experimental nature of the treatment; (2) the services that will or will not be available to the control group(s) if appropriate; (3) the means by which assignment to treatment and control groups will be made; (4) available treatment alternatives if an individual does not wish to participate in the research or wishes to withdraw once a study has begun; and (5) compensation for or monetary costs of participating including, if appropriate, whether reimbursement from the participant or a third-party payor will be sought. Again, competence is the key. (See also Standards 10.09, Interruption of Therapy, and 10.10, Terminating Therapy. 3.04 Avoiding Harm 8.10 Reporting Research Results Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publications are acknowledged appropriately, such as in footnotes or in an introductory statement. Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work. 1.08 Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents (See also Standard 3.12, Interruption of Psychological Services.). Psychologists do not knowingly engage in behavior that is harassing or demeaning to persons with whom they interact in their work based on factors such as those persons' age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 569-575. (d) Psychologists appropriately document written or oral consent, permission, and assent. Clinical Competency and Ethics in Psychology. By remaining ignorant and incompetent of clients’ cultures, psychologists risk unethical behavior and harm to their clients. Ethical standards of psychologists. 8.11 Plagiarism 1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority American Psychological Association. Competence is required of psychotherapists by their profession’s ethics code and it is essential for the provision of effective treatment services to clients. Psychologists respect and protect civil and human rights and the central importance of freedom of inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and publication. Illinois General Assembly Home Page. 1.06 Cooperating with Ethics Committees (See also Standard 8.12b, Publication Credit.). Revision of ethical standard 3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002, as amended 2010). Psychologists may now provide some services in emergency situations, and in underserved areas in which the options are limited to lower quality services or no … This does not preclude republishing data when they are accompanied by proper acknowledgment. The objective of the present research was two-fold: (1) to provide a new definition of ethical competence, and (2) to clarify the influence of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality on ethical competence. Third, psychologists must know when to refer and when not to, thus recognizing when they do or do not have access to obtain the knowledge or appropriate experience required. (See also Standard 3.05c, Multiple Relationships.). Such ethical dilemmas as those presented above demonstrate the vagueness of practicing ethically and competently. ), 2.05 Delegation of Work to Others If psychologists learn of misuse or misrepresentation of their work, they take reasonable steps to correct or minimize the misuse or misrepresentation. (See also Standard 3.09, Cooperation with Other Professionals. 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information (a) Psychologists take reasonable steps to avoid harming their clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, organizational clients, and others with whom they work, and to minimize harm where it is foreseeable and unavoidable.Â, 2018 APA Ethics Committee Rules and Procedures (PDF, 197KB), Revision of Ethics Code Standard 3.04 (Avoiding Harm)Â, APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2017) (PDF, 272KB), 2016 APA Ethics Committee Rules and Procedures, Revision of Ethical Standard 3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002, as Amended 2010) (PDF, 26KB), 2010 Amendments to the 2002 "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" (PDF, 39KB). (a) When individual or group therapy is a program or course requirement, psychologists responsible for that program allow students in undergraduate and graduate programs the option of selecting such therapy from practitioners unaffiliated with the program. When a psychologist is faced with an ethical quandary, using the decision making models outlined earlier can help psychologist reach the best decision for their specific issue. (See also Standards 2.01e, Boundaries of Competence, and 3.10, Informed Consent.). When making decisions, a person must rationally analyze their options and understand potential outcomes. For example, if a psychologist is racist against African-Americans, they could refer an African-American client to another psychologist saying they are not competent to work with African-Americans because they do not know enough about their culture. 9.10 Explaining Assessment Results When conflicts occur among psychologists' obligations or concerns, they attempt to resolve these conflicts in a responsible fashion that avoids or minimizes harm. The first obligation is becoming familiar with professional and scientific knowledge. People are still... Shame is an adaptive emotion. In emergencies, when psychologists provide services to individuals for whom other mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the necessary training, psychologists may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work. Psychologists do not knowingly make public statements that are false, deceptive, or fraudulent concerning their research, practice, or other work activities or those of persons or organizations with which they are affiliated. Psychologists do not solicit testimonials from current therapy clients/patients or other persons who because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to undue influence. 10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy (See also Standards 8.02, Informed Consent to Research; 9.03, Informed Consent in Assessments; and 10.01, Informed Consent to Therapy.). Standard of recognising limits of competence… (a) Psychologists obtain informed consent for assessments, evaluations, or diagnostic services, as described in Standard 3.10, Informed Consent, except when (1) testing is mandated by law or governmental regulations; (2) informed consent is implied because testing is conducted as a routine educational, institutional, or organizational activity (e.g., when participants voluntarily agree to assessment when applying for a job); or (3) one purpose of the testing is to evaluate decisional capacity. American Psychologist, 14, 279-282. (n.d.). Psychologists may dispense with informed consent only (1) where research would not reasonably be assumed to create distress or harm and involves (a) the study of normal educational practices, curricula, or classroom management methods conducted in educational settings; (b) only anonymous questionnaires, naturalistic observations, or archival research for which disclosure of responses would not place participants at risk of criminal or civil liability or damage their financial standing, employability, or reputation, and confidentiality is protected; or (c) the study of factors related to job or organization effectiveness conducted in organizational settings for which there is no risk to participants' employability, and confidentiality is protected or (2) where otherwise permitted by law or federal or institutional regulations. These are the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values which underlie the function of psychologists. (See also Standard 5.01a, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements.). (a) After research results are published, psychologists do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4), 212-217. Psychologists may refrain from releasing test data to protect a client/patient or others from substantial harm or misuse or misrepresentation of the data or the test, recognizing that in many instances release of confidential information under these circumstances is regulated by law. (See also Standards 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality, and 6.04, Fees and Financial Arrangements. (b) Psychologists select scoring and interpretation services (including automated services) on the basis of evidence of the validity of the program and procedures as well as on other appropriate considerations. However, this prohibition does not preclude (1) attempting to implement appropriate collateral contacts for the purpose of benefiting an already engaged therapy client/patient or (2) providing disaster or community outreach services. When indicated and professionally appropriate, psychologists cooperate with other professionals in order to serve their clients/patients effectively and appropriately. The American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2002) is the standard to which all members and student affiliates agree to comply with. The first domain is composed of foundational competencies. 7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility competence in ethical knowledge and link this knowledge to practical steps as a general guide for functional competence in psychotherapy termination. (a) Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with former clients/patients for at least two years after cessation or termination of therapy. Ethical standards of psychologists. "Clinical Competency and Ethics in Psychology." At times the APA 2002 Ethics Code can be in conflict with the client’s best interest, especially if the client adheres to different personal ethics or standards. (a) Psychologists make reasonable efforts to avoid offering excessive or inappropriate financial or other inducements for research participation when such inducements are likely to coerce participation. (See also Standard 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality. (b) Psychologists do not make false, deceptive, or fraudulent statements concerning (1) their training, experience, or competence; (2) their academic degrees; (3) their credentials; (4) their institutional or association affiliations; (5) their services; (6) the scientific or clinical basis for, or results or degree of success of, their services; (7) their fees; or (8) their publications or research findings. Psychologists are held to a high standard of professional competence given the sensitive nature of their work and the potential for high-stakes impact. Gallardo and colleagues (2009) state some of these challenges include negotiating boundaries within the therapeutic context, giving and providing solutions, and struggling with internal personal values when they differ from that of the client. Yet, competence is not static and is easily impacted by the presence of distress in the psychotherapist (Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger, … 2. When entering into employment or contractual relationships, psychologists make reasonable efforts to provide for orderly and appropriate resolution of responsibility for client/patient care in the event that the employment or contractual relationship ends, with paramount consideration given to the welfare of the client/patient. Although many of the suggestions here are already in effect, increasing the amount of facilities that regularly hold ethics rounds may have a significant impact on the ethical realm of psychology. (b) Principal authorship and other publication credits accurately reflect the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their relative status. (1981). The Ethical Standards set forth enforceable rules for conduct as psychologists. Psychologists do not exploit persons over whom they have supervisory, evaluative or other authority such as clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, and employees. A clear definition of an ethical dilemma is given by Kitchener as cited in Shiles (2009). Failure to cooperate is itself an ethics violation. If psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. These standards are particularly relevant to clinical psychologists in Illinois given the fact that under The Clinical Psychologist Licensing Act, those licensed in this state are not required to continue their education after licensure. ), 3.10 Informed Consent (b) Where scientific or professional knowledge in the discipline of psychology establishes that an understanding of factors associated with age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential for effective implementation of their services or research, psychologists have or obtain the training, experience, consultation, or supervision necessary to ensure the competence of their services, or they make appropriate referrals, except as provided in Standard 2.02, Providing Services in Emergencies. All rights reserved. Ethical competence is the quest for knowledge and action that defines right and wrong behavior. Integrating Evidence-Based Practice, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and Multicultural Therapy: Ten Steps for Culturally Competent Practice. A quick look at both the AASP and APA ethical guidelines reveal several areas linked to developing and maintaining cultural competence. In their work-related activities, psychologists do not engage in unfair discrimination based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, or any basis proscribed by law. Ethical Considerations in Criminal Justice Research: Informed Consent and Confidentiality, The Ethical Dilemma of When to Publish News. Psychologists who engage in such activity after the two years following cessation or termination of therapy and of having no sexual contact with the former client/patient bear the burden of demonstrating that there has been no exploitation, in light of all relevant factors, including (1) the amount of time that has passed since therapy terminated; (2) the nature, duration, and intensity of the therapy; (3) the circumstances of termination; (4) the client's/patient's personal history; (5) the client's/patient's current mental status; (6) the likelihood of adverse impact on the client/patient; and (7) any statements or actions made by the therapist during the course of therapy suggesting or inviting the possibility of a posttermination sexual or romantic relationship with the client/patient. Running head: CULTURAL COMPETENCE 1 Cultural Competence April Culberson Ethics in Psychology/PSY430 CULTURAL COMPETENCE 2 Abstract In this paper we will be using the “Course Case Study” to describe the ethical issues to cultural competence, we will look at the influence of personal values related to the diversity issues, how they come to exist in the handling the situation (Argosy … Component I of his model is ethical sensitivity. This standard does not preclude an instructor from modifying course content or requirements when the instructor considers it pedagogically necessary or desirable, so long as students are made aware of these modifications in a manner that enables them to fulfill course requirements. (See also Standard 4.01, Maintaining Confidentiality. They indicate any significant limitations of their interpretations. Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an Ethical Standard is not itself a defense to a charge of unethical conduct. 3.02 Sexual Harassment 4.03 Recording Another example of an ethical dilemma being debated in current research in regards to competency is what to do when you need a third-party to facilitate in the therapeutic relationship, as is the case with interpreters. Requesting psychologists obtain prior written agreement for all other uses of the data. The third domain of the Cube Model is a developmental perspective of competency. (a) Psychologists provide services, teach, and conduct research with populations and in areas only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, supervised experience, consultation, study, or professional experience. (a) Psychologists do not fabricate data. (b) In the absence of a client/patient release, psychologists provide test data only as required by law or court order. American Psychological Association. Fisher (2009) outlines a very similar 8-step model for ethical decision making. 2.01 Boundaries of Competence Results: As a result, the concept of ethical competence can be defined in terms of character strength, ethical awareness, moral judgement skills and willingness to do good. (See also Standard 6.05, Barter with Clients/Patients.). The Code became effective on June 1, 2003. Psychologists may barter only if (1) it is not clinically contraindicated, and (2) the resulting arrangement is not exploitative. Foundation for the practice of psychology and their resolutions will never be clear-cut answers is. Information must be made readily available to all interested parties 2010, and 2... The second domain of the population tested a participant, they are by. Should not form the basis of civil liability as an ethical Standard is not intended to be able develop! Unethical conduct their careers and Maintenance of Records. ) appropriate services are discontinued as soon as emergency! 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